Natural Gas vs. Biogas

Biogas and natural gas are two different types of fuels that serve two different purposes. One main difference between biogas and natural gas is how the fuel is made and used. Natural gas can be found in oil wells and deep underground. In contrast, biogas must be created on-site, usually at wastewater treatment plants or landfills, by converting organic matter into methane with anaerobic bacteria that do not require oxygen to survive.

You may have heard of natural gas and biogas, but what is the difference? Natural gas is a fossil fuel that forms when layers of dead plants and animals are exposed to intense heat and pressure over millions of years. On the other hand, biogas is a renewable energy source that can be produced from organic waste. Here’s a more detailed look at the key differences between natural gas and biogas.

Main Difference

As the world progresses, so does the technology we use to sustain it. A large part is a gas we pump into our homes to heat and cook our food. The two most common gases are natural gas and biogas. Here is a breakdown of the two, so you can decide which best suits your needs.

Natural gas is a fossil fuel that is found trapped in underground reservoirs. It is composed of methane, along with other hydrocarbons. Methane is used for energy when we burn natural gas in our homes. Biogas is produced by decomposing organic matter, such as food waste and manure. It is also composed of methane but has carbon dioxide and water vapor. Natural gas burns cleaner than other fossil fuels, such as coal.

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What is Natural Gas?

Natural gas is a colorless, odorless, flammable gas composed primarily of methane (CH4). It is produced by natural processes such as the biodegradation of organic matter, geologic activity, and decay of vegetation. It is commonly found in deposits associated with oil and natural-gas wells, coal beds, and some salt formations. It is also present in small amounts in groundwater, where it may be derived from thermogenic degradation of kerogen.


Natural Gas is one of the most popular forms of energy in the United States.

  1. It is a reliable and affordable source of energy that can be used for various purposes, from powering your home to running your business.
  2. Natural gas is also a clean-burning fuel, producing fewer emissions than other fossil fuels.
  3. There are many advantages to using natural gas. It is affordable, reliable, and clean-burning.
  4. Natural gas can be used for various purposes, including powering your home and running your business. It is also a renewable resource that can be replenished over time.


  1. Although natural gas is touted as a clean energy source, it still has some disadvantages that must be considered.
  2. One of the most significant disadvantages of natural gas is that it is a non-renewable resource. This means that once we run out, we will have to find another energy source to replace it.
  3. Natural gas can also be quite volatile and flammable, which can pose serious safety risks if there are leaks or accidents.
  4. Additionally, extracting and transporting natural gas can have negative environmental impacts, such as air pollution and water contamination.
  5. So, while natural gas may be cleaner than other fossil fuels, it still has some significant drawbacks that need to be considered.

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What is Biogas?

Biogas is a mixture of gases produced by the breakdown of organic material in anaerobic conditions. It consists mainly of carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methane (CH4), and trace amounts of ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), and oxygen (O2). Biogas is created when organic materials decompose under anaerobic conditions. These organic materials can be anything from manure to sewage sludge.


The use of biogas has many benefits, including;

• Producing electricity
• Reducing greenhouse gas emissions
• Removing harmful pollutants from air and water
• Creating fertilizer
• Improving soil quality
• Increasing crop yields
• Using renewable energy
• Producing clean fuel
• Producing food
• Producing heat
• Producing power
• Producing raw materials
• Producing value-added products
• Providing a safe alternative to fossil fuels
• Saving money
• Sustainability


  • While biogas has many potential benefits, there are also some disadvantages associated with this type of energy.
  • One of the main disadvantages of biogas is that it can be expensive to set up and maintain. Additionally, biogas plants require a lot of space and can produce offensive odors.
  • Another downside to biogas is that it is not always reliable – weather conditions can impact gas production, and storage facilities are often needed to ensure a consistent supply.

Key Differences Between Natural Gas and Biogas

  • Natural gas is a fossil fuel from the remains of organisms that lived millions of years ago.
  • Biogas, on the other hand, is produced by decomposing organic matter.
  • Another key difference is that natural gas is a nonrenewable resource, while biogas is renewable.
  • Biogas also has less carbon dioxide than its counterpart.
  • Lastly, natural gas requires significant energy to extract; biogas can be collected without much effort.

Composition of Natural Gas

Natural gas is composed of methane (C1H8) and other hydrocarbons. Methane is the primary constituent of natural gas. Natural gas may be derived from petroleum, coal, shale, or water. In addition, natural gas may have been processed to remove impurities. Natural gas is often called “dry” if it contains less than 1% moisture. It is called wet natural gas if the natural gas contains greater than 1% moisture. Wet natural gas is sometimes referred to as condensate.

Natural gas is transported over long distances by liquefied natural gas carriers. LNG tankers hold cryogenic liquid natural gas in specialized tanks at shallow temperatures (−162° F.). The LNG is stored onboard the ship until it is delivered to markets along the coast.

Liquefied natural gas is lighter than air. As a result, LNG is susceptible to stratification. Stratified LNG is heavier than normal LNG and sinks to the bottom of the storage tanks. Normal LNG rises to the top of the tanks. When the two layers meet, they mix and become homogeneous.

Composition of Biogas

Biogas is produced by breaking organic matter (biomass) in anaerobic digestion processes. Anaerobic digestion is a natural process in which microorganisms break down organic material without oxygen. In biogas production, biomass is converted into methane gas and carbon dioxide. Methane is a greenhouse gas, while carbon dioxide is a naturally occurring substance.

Methane is a colorless, odorless, flammable gas that is 25 times stronger than carbon dioxide at warming potential. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, contributing about 20% of global warming potential. Methane emissions are more significant than CO2, even though methane is only 21% as strong as CO2 at warming potential.

The composition of biogas varies depending on the type of biomass being digested. Biogas contains approximately 50-70% CH4, 15-25% CO2, 5-15% H2S, 10-20% N2, 0-10% O2, and trace amounts of COS, HCHO, and VOCs.

Benefits of using Natural Gas

Natural gas is a clean-burning fuel that produces much less carbon dioxide than coal or oil. It’s also cheaper than electricity and heating oil. In addition, natural gas is cleaner than gasoline and diesel fuel.

Natural gas is a colorless, odorless gas composed primarily of methane. Methane is produced naturally by bacteria in the digestive system of animals and humans. When we consume food, the bacteria break down the cellulose and hemicellulose fibers of the plant matter. These bacteria then convert the simple sugar molecules into methane.

The United States Department of Energy estimates that about 90% of natural gas production comes from shale formations. Shale formations are sedimentary rocks that have been compressed over millions of years. As they were being formed, water was trapped between the layers of sandstone and mudstone. Over time, the pressure caused the water to turn to ice. As the ice melted, it left behind pockets of gas.

Shale gas is extracted from underground shale deposits via hydraulic fracturing (also known as “fracking”). Fracking involves pumping water at high pressures deep into the ground to fracture shale rock and release the gas inside. Once the gas is released, it flows back toward the surface along cracks created in the rock.

Natural gas is often considered “clean” because it does not produce harmful emissions. However, fracking operations emit tiny amounts of air pollutants, including volatile organic compounds, heavy metals, and radioactive materials.

There are many benefits to using natural gas. First, it is a renewable resource. Unlike petroleum products, natural gas can be replenished. Second, natural gas burns cleaner than fossil fuels. Third, natural gas prices tend to fluctuate less than crude oil prices. Fourth, natural gas is abundant in North America. Fifth, natural gas is relatively inexpensive compared to other forms of energy. Sixth, natural gas is a reliable energy source.


Biogas is produced from organic matter, while natural gas is a fossil fuel. Biogas is renewable, while natural gas is not. And finally, biogas can be used for electricity generation, while natural gas is used mainly for heating. A more extensive grid system may also be needed to handle greater power demand in areas with high natural gas consumption. The conversion process of natural gas to biogas will also produce about 50% more power than when it was only used as an energy source for heating and cooking – meaning it will take less time to recover the initial investment of installing a digester or anaerobic digester if you want to use your waste materials as an energy source.